Travel pictures from Egypt
by Günther Eichhorn
The calendar of Ancient Egypt was based on three seasons with four months each. Each month had 30 days. At the end was an additional month of 5 epagomenal days, celebrating the birthdays of Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis, and Nephtys. The God Toth was credited with having devised the calendar and added the five extra days. He played dice with the other Gods, and when he won, he asked for the extra five days.
The three seasons were the flood season (akhet ), the growing season (proyet ), and the harvest season (shomu ). The four months of the flood season were Tekh, Menhet, Hwt-Hrw, and Ka-Hr-Ka, the four months of the growing season were Sf-Bdt, Rekh Wer, Rekh Neds, and Renwet, and the four months of the harvest season were Hnsw, Hnt-Htj, Ipt-Hmt, and Wep-Renpet.
The first appearance of Sirius in the pre-dawn sky was used to start the Egyptian calendar year. The calendar itself dates back to pre-dynastic times.
Here are the symbols that are used in the Ancient Egyptian numbering system for the calendar:
The dates are listed in increasing day number. For regular dates, only the day number is specified. For the first day of each month, the full date is specified. This can be seen in the right-most column with this date: . It specifies the first day ( far left) of the third month (far right) of the growing season ( center). The date above it () shows the symbol for thirty ( top) and for day ( bottom), the 30th and last day of the previous month. The date above that () shows the symbols for day ( far right), nine ( far left), and twice the symbol for ten ( center), adding up to 29.
The following relief shows calendar information.
|Ancient Egyptian Calendar in the Temple of Kom Ombo. (739k)|
|The stones of a temple have these double-wedge holes cut out. Wooden dowels are then put in these holes to hold the stones together. (738k)|
|Old ruins on the bank of the Nile. (506k)||Ruins on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Aswan. (575k)||Ruins on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Aswan. (522k)||Ruins on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Aswan. (692k)||Ruins on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Aswan. (603k)|
|Roman ruins in Cairo. (509k)|
These churches are from the 5th or 6th century.
|Interior of the church with early Christian paintings. (577k)||Interior of the church with early Christian paintings. (592k)||Interior of the church with early Christian paintings. (623k)||Interior of the church with inlay work. (425k)||Interior of the church with early Christian paintings and wood work. (603k)|
The original name of this monastery is Anba Hatre. It was named after an anchorite who was consecrated as bishop of Syene (now Aswan) by Patriarch Theophilus (385-412 CE). This monastery is located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite of Aswan. The first signs of this monastery are from the 6th or 7th century. Significant building activity came in the 11th century. The monastery was significantly damaged by Salah al-Din (Saladin) in the 12th century. By the end of the 13th century the monastery had been abandoned.
|Anba Hatre monastery. (466k)||Anba Hatre monastery. (580k)||Anba Hatre monastery. (613k)||Walls of the Anba Hatre monastery. (423k)||In the monastery. (567k)|
|Paintings in the monastery. (450k)||Paintings in the monastery. (423k)||Paintings in the monastery. (435k)|
|The Citadel, a monument of medieval warfare. (498k)||Mohammed Ali Mosque, an imposing alabaster building. (496k)||View of the Mohammed Ali Mosque. (438k)||View of the Mohammed Ali Mosque. (364k)||Wrought iron screen on the Mohammed Ali Mosque. (662k)|
|Small building in the courtyard of the Mohammed Ali Mosque for ritual washing. (449k)||Detail of the water fountains for ritual washing. (452k)||Pulpit in the interior of the Mohammed Ali Mosque. (507k)||Details in the interior of the Mohammed Ali Mosque. (579k)||View of the marble tomb of Mohammed Ali through a marble screen. (330k)|
|View of another mosque and Cairo from the Mohammed Ali Mosque. (474k)|
The Mausoleum of Aga Khan was built across the Nile from Aswan.
|The Mausoleum of Aga Khan. (473k)||The Mausoleum of Aga Khan. (312k)||The Mausoleum of Aga Khan. (455k)||The Mausoleum of Aga Khan. (381k)||The Mausoleum of Aga Khan. (700k)|
|Today's Egypt||Ancient Egypt|
All pictures are © Günther Eichhorn
Miscellaneous Architecture on guenther-eichhorn.com
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